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Nitrous Oxide

Nitrous Oxide 50% Blended in Oxygen
(Nitronox®)

CLASS

Anesthetic

DOSAGE

    Blended mixture of 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen, which is self-administered through inhalation. Also apply O2 cannula at 4-6 L to maintain O2 therapy when nitrous oxide is not being administered.

ACTIONS

    Nitrous oxide is a colorless gas, which acts on the central nervous system. When mixed with 50% oxygen and inhaled, it produces an effect similar to a mild intoxicant. The patient laughs and talks but does not go to sleep. When inhaled, nitrous oxide has potent analgesic effects, which dissipate within 2-5 minutes after stopping administration.

INDICATIONS

    Moderate to severe pain as in trauma, acute MI, burns, renal colic and labor.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

    Nitrous oxide is contraindicated in any altered state of consciousness, (eg. head injury,alcohol ingestion, drug OD). It is also contraindicated in COPD patients, acute pulmonary edema, pneumothorax, decompression sickness, air embolus, and abdominal pain with distention or suspicion of obstruction, pregnancy (except during delivery), and patients that are unable to self-administer Nitronox.

WARNINGS

    Since nitrous oxide is heavier than air, it may accumulate on the floor of ambulance. During transits of more than 15 minutes, nitrous oxide may effect ambulance personnel.

SIDE EFFECTS

    Light-headedness, confusion, drowsiness, nausea and vomiting.

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