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Dextrose

Dextrose 50% and 25%
(d-glucose)

Class

Carbohydrate, Hypertonic solution

DOSAGE

    Adult:(>8 years of age) 50 cc of a 50% solution; (25 gm) IV.
    If conscious, Glucose may be given orally (25 gm).

    Pediatric:(If Less than 8 years of age) 2-4 ml/kg slow IV of a 25% solution.

    Newborn:4 ml/kg IV of d12.5% solution (dilute D50 4:1 with NS).

ACTIONS

    A monosaccharide, which provides calories for metabolic needs, spares body proteins and loss of electrolytes. Readily excreted by kidneys producing diuresis. Hypertonic solution.

INDICATION

    Hypoglycemia; coma of unknown origin.

CONTRAINDICATION

    - Intracranial or intraspinal hemorrhage.
    - DTs with dehydration.
    - Blood glucose level > 60 mg/dl.

WARNINGS

    May cause Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in acute alcohol intoxication usually this is prevented by administration of Thiamine 100 mg IM or IV. Perform a glucose test (if possible) and draw a blood sample (red top tube) prior to administering Dextrose.

SIDE EFFECTS

    Cardiovascular: Thrombosis, sclerosing if given in peripheral vein.

    Local: Tissue irritation if infiltrates. Extravasation may cause tissue necrosis; use a large vein and aspirate occasionally to ensure route patency.

    Others: Acidosis, alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hypokalemia.

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